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Developmental Norms
A brief outline of what children should typically be able to say and understand at each age. Please keep in mind that this is not an extensive list, but rather a quick guide for the most asked questions. 

Speech Sounds

2 Years Old - p, b, m

3 Years Old - t, d, n, k, g, t, f, h, w, y, ng

4 Years Old - v, s, z, sh, ch, l, j

5 Years Old - r, zh, th (voiced)

6 Years Old - th (voiceless)

Speech Intelligibility

Speech intelligibility is how well someone's speech is able to be understood by communication partners.
Familiar communication partners are someone who knows the speaker well.

Intelligibility to Familiar Listeners

1.5 years old - 25% intelligible

2 Years Old - 50-75% intelligible

3 Years Old - 75-100% intelligible

4 Years Old - 100% intelligible 

Intelligibility to Unfamiliar Listeners

2 Years Old - 50% intelligible

3 Years Old - 75% intelligible

4 Years Old - 100% intelligible

Expressive Language

                           - combines 2 words together

                           - says social words (hello / bye)

                           - asks simple questions

                           - start to use "mine" and "my" 

                           - uses tone of voice to ask a question

                           - combines 4-5 words together

                           - talks about things in the past, overusing -ed ("I goed to school")

                           - asks simple questions ("where" / "who")

                           - uses "ing, the, a"

                           - uses simple prepositions "in" and "on"

                           - begins to ask "when" and "how" questions

                           - uses simple pronouns (I / me / you / he / she)

                           - uses plurals (-s)

                           - uses words such as "and", "but", and "because" to create more complex                                  sentences

                           - tells short stories with a beginning, middle, and end

                           - takes turns in conversations

                           - uses past and present tense verbs (walked / walk / will walk)

                           - names categories

                           - uses comparatives (big / bigger / biggest)

By 5 Years Old

By 4 Years Old

By 3 Years Old

By 2 Years Old

Receptive Language

                           - identifies objects, pictures, and basic body parts

                           - understands simple directions and questions,

                           - understands "no", "in" and "on"

                           - begins to understand describing words,

                           - follows 2-step directions

                           - understands simple wh- questions (what / where / who)

                           - sorts items into categories (toys vs. food)

                           - understands action words

                           - understands simple concepts (colors / shapes)

                           - understands most wh- questions

                           - understands opposites and object functions

                           - follows 3-step directions

                           - understands questions about daily tasks

                           - understands time and order words (before / now / after / later)

                           - understands order words (first / last)

                           - understands riddles

                           - answers "why" questions

                           - answers questions about stories

By 2 Years Old

By 3 Years Old

By 4 Years Old

By 5 Years Old

*See the "Resources" tab for downloads of speech and language developmental milestones. 

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